2 edition of cause of thermal fatigue cracking in Metroliner wheels found in the catalog.
cause of thermal fatigue cracking in Metroliner wheels
G. F. Carpenter
by Dept. of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Research and Development, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in Washington, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||G. F. Carpenter.|
|Series||Report - Federal Railroad Administration ; no. FRA/ORD-77/17, Report (National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.)) -- no. FRA/ORD-77/17.|
|Contributions||United States. Federal Railroad Administration. Office of Research and Development.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||vii, 83 p. :|
|Number of Pages||83|
Mechanism and Estimation of Fatigue Crack Initiation in Austenitic Stainless Steels in LWR Environments by O. K. Chopra Abstract The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I– through I– of Appendix I to Section III of the Code. The mechanism of most deaerator cracking has been identified as environmentally assisted fatigue cracking. Although the exact causes are not known, steps can be taken to minimize the potential for cracking (e.g., stress-relieving of welds and minimization of thermal and mechanical stress during operation).
In addition, reactor pressure vessels may be subjected to fatigue damage. Although fatigue is a degradation mechanism that is second in importance to radiation embrittlement for PWR RPV, it may also affect BWR RPV structural integrity. For example, BWR vessels may be subjected to both high-and low-cycle fatigue . Appendix A Pavement Distress Types and Causes Figure A Fatigue (alligator) cracking in asphalt pavement.1 Block Cracking and Thermal Cracking Block cracking is the cracking of an asphalt pavement into rectangular pieces ranging from about 1 ft to 10 ft on a side. Block cracking occurs over large paved areas such as parking lots,File Size: 2MB.
ments to resist thermal fatigue cracking. The first step is the development of a computer model based on fracture mechanics for predicting transverse cracking due to thermal fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. It uses Shahin's and McCullouqh' s revision of Barber's Eq:uations (Bulletin , Highway Research Board. FAQ: What is fatigue failure and how can it be avoided? A load of insufficient magnitude to cause failure in a single application may lead to failure if it is removed and reapplied repeatedly. This mechanism of failure is known as fatigue. In unwelded metals and alloys the failure process consists of initiation of microscopic cracking.
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Get this from a library. The cause of thermal fatigue cracking in Metroliner wheels: final report. [G F Carpenter; United States Steel Corporation. Research Laboratory.]. One new wheel and two used wheels (one with a thermal crack in the tread) were examined for mechanical properties, macrostructure, microstructure, and residual stresses.
Similar examinations were conducted on three new wheels which were first subjected to various braking cycles designed to define the conditions that produce by: 1. The cause of thermal fatigue cracking in metroliner wheels / By G.
Carpenter, Transportation Systems Center., United States. Federal Railroad Administration. and United States Steel Corporation. PDF | In this paper, fatigue life of a cracked railway wheel under thermo-mechanical loads is studied.
For this purpose a FE model of a wheel, with two |. Finally, effects of angular velocity on fatigue life of a cracked wheel under -mechanical and mechanical loads are shown. The obtained results confirm the important influences of thermal loads on the wheel fatigue life in all mentioned cases that are studied in this article.
Keywords. Fatigue life; railway wheels; thermo-mechanical loads; crack. Thermal fatigue cracking is the cracking that happens after a metal is repeatedly heated and cooled rapidly. Heat resistant alloys all have high coefficients of thermal expansion; most of which expand at a rate close to 1/5” per foot when heated from room temperature up to °F.
cause thermal cracks initiation should be avoided in design of power plant station components. In existing plant components the risk of thermal fatigue cracking should be assessed and conditions necessary for the prevention of this degradation process should be clarified.
Key words: Stainless steel, thermal shock, thermal fatigue, fatigue crack, thermal cycle. AbstraktFile Size: 1MB. The degree of damage due to thermal fatigue depends on the magnitude and frequency of temperature fluctuation.
Thermal fatigue cracks initiate at the surface and propagate inward. The cracking due to thermal fatigue reveals a planar continuous surface. Thermal fatigue cracks can manifest itself in both intergranular and transgranular mode.
measured in Just thousands of seconds of operation during which time low-cycle thermal fatigue cracks initiate and grow to readily detectable proportions. Pressure vessel and piping components in the electric power industry also must be designed to resist thermal fatigue cracking. This is done at great.
Dhouha Mellouli et al. studied the effect of hardness on thermal fatigue damage of hot-working tool steel. Cracks originating from thermal effect in die casting are often caused by thermal fatigue loading, low mate-File Size: 1MB.
A crack may be defined as a local discontinuity produced by a fracture which can arise from the stresses generated on cooling or acting on the structure. It is the most serious type of imperfection found in a weld and should be removed.
Cracks not only reduce the strength of the weld through the reduction in the cross section thickness but also. To clarify important effects of braking thermal loads on the stress fields and fatigue life of a cracked wheel, results of thermo-mechanical analysis compared to pure mechanical stress responses of the wheel.
For this reason, the calculations of critical crack size (ac), stress intensity factors (SIFs). Effect of temperature on the performance of railroad wheels The cause of thermal fatigue cracking in Metroliner wheels.
rolling contacts can cause fatigue cracks to Author: Steven Dedmon. Thermal fatigue is a specific type of fatigue failure mechanism that is induced by cyclic stresses from repetitive fluctuations in the temperature of equipment.
The degree of damage is affected by the magnitude and frequency of the temperature swings. Damage typically appears in the form of one or more cracks at the surface of the component. According to Union Pacific Railroad wheel fracture database, 65% of railroad wheel failures are caused by shattered rims, 5% by thermal cracking, and the other 30% by vertical split rim.
Thermal cracking usually breaks off a piece of the wheel tread, while shattered rim can destroy the wheel's integrity and thus is more by: Fatigue cracking is one of the primary damage mechanisms of structural components.
Fatigue cracking results from cyclic stresses that are below the ultimate tensile stress, or even the yield stress of the material. Rolling contact fatigue / gauge corner cracking “Fatigue” describes damage that occurs as a result of the incremental growth of a crack or series of cracks.
”Rolling contact fatigue” (RCF) describes the process in which cracks grow as a result of the contact stresses between a rolling wheel and the rail.
Fastener fatigue Fatigue is the most common form of frac-ture of metal structures, accounting for up to 80% of all costs associated with fracture. Fas-teners are no exception, as fatigue remains the most common cause of fastener breaks. Fatigue crack initiation and growth occurs when cyclic stresses exceed the fatigue strength of local ma.
Fatigue (material) In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by cyclic loading that results in progressive and localized structural damage and the growth of cracks. Once a crack has initiated, each loading cycle will grow the crack a small amount, typically producing striations on some parts of the fracture surface.
How To Diagnose Plain Bearing Failures. Diagnosing plain bearing failures is all about recognising the tell-tale signs of different wear out and other failure modes. Careful inspection of the failed bearing will usually reveal vital visual clues that can lead to a potential cause.
The entire fatigue process involves the nucleation and growth of a crack or cracks to final fracture. The fatigue crack size at fracture can be very small or very large, occupying from less than 1 percent of the fracture surface up to almost percent.
Often the fatigue crack region can be distinguished fromFile Size: 2MB.Thermal Cycling Effects on the Fatigue Behaviour of Low Carbon Steel Segun Afokhainu Agbadua 1, heat that causes the thermal gradient may be friction as in the case of brake.
It was reported that thermal cycling is followed by the formation of a large number of fine crack ( – mm long) on the surface of a specimen and these File Size: KB.Stress corrosion cracking Corrosion fatigue is fatigue in a corrosive environment.
It is the mechanical degradation of a material under the joint action of corrosion and cyclic loading. Nearly all engineering structures experience some form of alternating stress, and are exposed to harmful environments during their service life.